“Orthogonality” appears in many disciplines:


In general it is the concept of independence and mutual exclusivity. An entity is said to be orthogonal if its properties can be changed without affecting other entities.

The most common use is to describe geometric axes, such as the three dimensional axes x, y, and z. You can move along any one of these axes and not change the values of the other two axes.

Orthogonality is used in operational analysis to avoid double counting a particular property.